Town at 424 meters, located in the middle valley of the Sacco River, formerly known as Anagnia, was the capital of the Confederation of Ernici. Fall into the hands of the Romans around 306. C., became a prefecture and then city hall. In 1160 during the battle between Alexander III and Frederick Barbarossa, the pope promoted there a meeting of cardinals and bishops to excommunicate the emperor, the antipope Victor IV and their supporters. In the twelfth century Anagni became common and endured the intolerance of opposing political factions, until it fell under the rule of the Caetani. In 1303 Boniface VIII, in the struggle with Philip IV the Fair, shortly before pronouncing the excommunication against the King of France, was imprisoned by the French and by the partisans led by James William of Nogaret and Sciarra Colonna, but was later freed by the citizens insurgents. Legendary James Sciarra Colonna slap that would give the pope and took the name from which the episode “slap of Anagni.” The town, which was the residence of the Pope in the Middle Ages, is still full of buildings dating back to that period. In the upper part of the city overlooking the cathedral, which dates back to 1074, with the impressive side and three apses. The interior, with three naves, has a mosaic floor of “Master Cosmos.” The chancel retains decorative works of “Vassalletto”: the ciborium, the paschal candle in the form of a spiral column marble inlays; the Bishop’s chair, with armrests and backrest inlaid. The crypt, with three naves and three apses, has a mosaic floor of “Cosmos” and sons Luke and James (1231). The frescoes on the walls are one of the most interesting series of paintings of the thirteenth century Italian. Date back to the thirteenth century the palace of Anagni, Boniface, known until now mainly for his role as papal seat in the Middle Ages and tied to the vicissitudes of Boniface VIII, has recently assumed great importance in the field of research thanks to the discovery of prehistoric stone tools of more than 700,000 years ago and remains of Homo erectus fossils dating back 458,000 years, the oldest in Italy.